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Gareth Evans

March 2023

Eyarth Hall.jpg

Eyarth Hall, also Eyarth Uchaf, Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd. D Williams and P Randall have traced the history of Eyarth Hall, often confused with nearby Eyarth House, and early documents refer to them as Eyarth Uchaf and Eyarth Isaf, respectively. Built by the Price family, whose heraldry can be seen in the house, and assumed to date from '1599', the date in the hall. The initials "R.W." over the front door suggest the builder was Riceus Williams, a Verger of Westminster Abbey whose name appears in the earliest surviving property transactions.


DRO:DD/PO/2726 Sale particulars and plans of the Glanywern Estate

What is a country estate?

Country estates have more than one farm and enough rental to create and sustain a manor or country house.

Country houses would have guest rooms and entertainment spaces and in Wales accommodation for more than one family and were surrounded by extensive farming on domestic out houses.

Estates come and go; estates grow; estates go bust; estates are divided; estates amalgamate with other estates; an iterative process over many generations. Bachymbyd, Bachymbyd and Rug, Bachymbyd and Blithfield; Rhydonnen, Cerrigllwydion and Caeynwch.

Dyffryn Clwyd.jpg


was an administrative entity surviving in one form or another for over 700 years. Originally, it was a cantref with 3 commotes, Dogfeiling, Colion and Llannerch. It became a marcher lordship, then a hundred and then a petty sessional division.

Pre 1282 there were estates belonging to the family of the Welsh princes and their supporters, the Church, including the Bishop of Bangor and the clas at Llanynys. The Welsh tribal gwelyau held extensive lands and there was substantial unenclosed land.

Post Conquest In 1282, De Grey was given the Cantref of Dyffryn Clwyd as a marcher lordship and owned everything except the ecclesiastical land and the land belonging to the Welsh tribes. De Grey created medieval parks for hunting and these would later become the centres of country estates.

The Bishop of Bangor’s estate survived into the 19th century and in 1752 included property in Llanelidan, Llanfair, Llanychan and Llandyrnog, where the bishop was lord of the manor of Rhiwbebyll.

The clas at Llanynys continued and the new College of St Peter owned extensive land and rights given by charter from the second Lord de Grey.


De Grey was indebted to many for the help he had received in gaining his lordship and wished to attract new English migrants into the lordship. He granted and gifted lands to his followers and the de Greys continued to do this throughout their period of ownership.

The largest migrant estate formed from de Grey grants was Llewenni. The Salesbury gamily and its cadets continued to grow the estates. In 1606 in the north of Dyffryn Clwyd, in the commote of Dogfeiling, Llewenni had over 500 acres and its cadets had established estates in Bachymbyd, Clocaenog and Llanelidan etc. These new estate owners developed over the centuries a high regard for their inheritances and their family lineage.

Many smaller holdings by English migrants developed. Detailed research in Ruthin’s Lordship's records on Llanfair DC suggests the English were concentrated on the better land in Garthgynan, Faenol, Euarth and Derwen Llannerch.  

In Garthgynan, there were eleven English-held plots of land. The largest holding was that of Almary de Marreys, one of De Grey’s lieutenants.  By the 1324 rental, Almary de Marreys’ Garthgynan estate amounted to 128½ acres as well as a town property on Castle Street - Gorphwysfa.

Other de Marreys held 27¾ in Garthgynan and 13¾ in Derwen-llannerch.

It is tempting to imagine that the de Marreys land included the land on which was developed one of Dyffryn Clwyd’s most attractively located houses at Garthgynan, which would most definitely benefit from archaeological excavation.

Wynnstay painted book of heraldry.jpg

DRO: DD/DM/1647

The painted book of heraldry in the Wynnstay collection in Ruthin (above) was compiled either for or by Owen Salesbury, son of William Salesbury of Bachymbyd and Rug, about 1649 and shows the importance this family attached to their lineage.

Plas y Ward



Plas y Ward.jpg

Elsewhere in Llanfair, by the first decade of the 14th century there existed in Llannerch a group of English settler families, which would remain unchanged until the onset of the plague in 1349. The effects of the first plague in this community was serious. Several of the main English families were devastated.

The Thelwall family of Plas y Ward also benefitted from their support of the De Greys. John Thelwall married ffelice, daughter and heiress of John ap Rhys Fychan and Alice, daughter and heiress of Walter Cooke or Ward, of Plas y Ward; The Thelwalls gained an estate, which fused urban property with rural land. The medieval estate continued to grow: the Thelwalls become, through longevity, wealth and lucrative government positions, probably the most important family in Dyffryn Clwyd.

Elsewhere in Llanfair, by the first decade of the 14th century there existed in Llannerch a group of English settler families, which would remain unchanged until the onset of the plague in 1349. The effects of the first plague in this community was serious. Several of the main English families were devastated.

The Thelwall family of Plas y Ward also benefitted from their support of the De Greys. John Thelwall married ffelice, daughter and heiress of John ap Rhys Fychan and Alice, daughter and heiress of Walter Cooke or Ward, of Plas y Ward; The Thelwalls gained an estate, which fused urban property with rural land. The medieval estate continued to grow: the Thelwalls become, through longevity, wealth and lucrative government positions, probably the most important family in Dyffryn Clwyd.

The most senior member of the family in the Late Tudor period headed the Commission to stage the Eisteddfod at Caerwys.

The poet Simwnt Fychan praised Plas y Ward; the house was rebuilt by Simon Thelwall 1526-82 during his third marriage to Margaret, daughter of Sir William Griffith of Penrhyn. It was she, according to the poet, who was mostly responsible for the rebuilding.

‘It had been the residence for the family for 10 generations. Now rebuilt. It has new roofing. The new parlour is white and covered with pearls. It has stones. The gable end is made of crystal stones, glittering like a thousand stars.

Margaret has made a summer house, hafdy in the garden and below the beautiful green lawn is a fine lake with snow-coloured swans on it’.

Diwarth aelwyd ir thelwals

Diau yw phyrth and a ffals

vrddassol grassol groesi

y tec adnewyddwyd hi

adnewyddiad anneiddil

I barhau tra vo byw’r hil.


Main yw hwn mae’n iawn hynny

Main grissial yw tal y ty

I welediad ai loywder

Ai liw ssydd val mil o sser

The house has new roofing.

The house is fitted with glass and the family’s arms painted on stones.

Edward Thelwall, the last of his line at Plas y Ward, died in 1677 leaving large debts. His wife, Sidney, continued to live at Plas y Ward and died in 1683. She had inherited the Garthgynan and Branas estates from her father, William Wynne, who bought Garthgynan in 1638, and she kept rooms there until her death.

The inventory of her goods shows the living arrangements at Plas y Ward in 1683. There were 3 reception rooms, a hall, new parlour and a great parlour, at least 7 upper floor rooms and 4 utility rooms, including a cellar and a brewhouse, buttery and milk house.


A period of great social and economic change arrived with the famine years of 1315-18 followed by the Black Death in 1348 to 50 which resulted in severe depopulation. In social and economic terms, it saw the disruption and eventual breakdown of the tribal gwely system due to insufficient labour to sustain it. Many gwely fields lay unoccupied notably in Dyffryn Clwyd after most of the bondsmen who worked the land took flight across the border especially to Cheshire.

Marcher lords were claiming more and more lands from the gwely, the system did not allow women to inherit land and the land of a man without male heirs escheated to his Lord who could grant it to others. A Welsh mortgage or Tir Prid was devised to enable a gwely member to raise cash. After a mortgage had been renewed for 16 years the land was considered to be in the absolute ownership of the mortgagee. It was rare before 1350 and in the following century its incidence increased rapidly.

Therefore, the capacity to buy and sell land existed in abundance in fourteenth and fifteenth-century Wales. The evidence strongly suggests an enduring consciousness of the importance of hereditary right among Welsh landholders. Of the tenants identified in the lordship rental of 1483, over two-thirds enjoyed a hereditary interest in at least part of their land, and, indeed, in a number of cases, familial continuity would persist into the ensuing decades.

Ty Coch, Llangynhafal 1430

Ty Coch 2.jpg

We have two surviving Welsh farming homes from the 15th century. They have often been assumed to be barns. Ty Coch in Llangynhafal, with a dendrochronology date of 1430, was originally a house with an inner room a hall with passage and Pant Glas Isa in Llanynys, a hall house converted to a barn. C.1480 - 1520.

These are both substantial buildings and the Welsh families who lived in them would have significant landholdings; Welsh families and English settlers were assembling small, landed portfolios.


The dismantling of the medieval parks in the lordship of Ruthin and the dissolution of the College of Saint Peter during the early and mid-16th century provided great opportunities for the Tudor gentry to expand their properties. The Thelwalls were stewards of the College of Saint Peter and unsurprisingly quite a lot of the college lands ended up in their hands.

The medieval parks gave way to new gentry estates. Derwen Hall and Pont y Go were carved out of Bryn ciffo, Bathafarn and Clocaenog became estates.


Bathafarn park extended from the bottom of the Vale and up to and beyond the ridge line at Clwyd Gate

Nantclwyd Hall lying in old Bryn ciffo park

Nantclwyd Hall.jpg

Bryn ciffo seems to have mainly disappeared from the historical landscape so let's put it back. It was situated around the water meadows of the river Clwyd slap bang where Nantclwyd Hall and park are now and ran up the hillsides probably on both sides of the water meadows.

The medieval parks were unpopulated apart from a few people living within the park to look after the animals and more importantly keep out intruders and prepare for the Lord’s hunts.

They were therefore ideal places for a new development, which required lots of space and very few people.


During the reign of Elizabeth, large parts of the lordship of Dyffryn Clwyd were sold off by owners, Ambrose Dudley and his wife, Earl and Countess of Warwick. Many urban investors piled into the land and among the first off the mark were the Ashpool family from Ruthin and the Ap Harry family from Castle Street now Nantclwyd y Dre.

For a while there was frenzied purchase of land. John Davies says there was a fourfold increase between 1530 and 1640 in the price of ordinary goods; inflation in food prices was greater and the rise in rents was greater still. The gentry’s lust for land had sound economic foundations; land offered returns which were not only substantial, but also more stable than those offered by other forms of investment. Every method was employed to secure additional land: royal favour, commercial ventures, action in law and bold lawlessness.

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Plas Ashpool c. 1945

Over time English and Welsh estate owners tried to develop large and coherent land ownerships as at Glan y Wern, Llandyrnog. Nearby at Plas Ashpool in Llandyrnog there is a huge barn. which would only be developed if you had a large quantity of things you needed to store. It is a most sophisticated 5 bay cruck barn encased in brick possibly in the late 17th century; the central threshing bay was four metres wide the other bays being 4.5 metres.

Tudor taxation records from 1544 onwards shows the state of landowning and the emergence of the gentry. By the end of Elizabeth I’s reign over 90% of tax paying landowners in Dyffryn Clwyd were Welsh. All the authority of the Crown in law and administration was deputed to the gentry, a process which had begun earlier in the reign of Henry VI. They were the guardians of the rural community and respected by those who dealt with them.

Huw Machno said of Edward Prys of Llwyn Ynn, Llanfair D.C.

      ‘Ei glod yn deg a ledir

      A’i ofn sy o fewn y sir’

In Llangwyfan, in 1544, the largest owners are all Welsh and by 1606 a larger estate has emerged of 10 properties centred on Plas Llangwyfan.

In Llandyrnog, in 1544, four of the six largest landowners have Welsh names including the Powell families and the Ashpool family, which by 1666 owned distinctive estates with small mansions.

In Llangynhafal, in 1544, all the larger landowners are Welsh, Robtus ap Gruff ap lln ap engion is one of the larger ones and his descendants adopting the family name of Wynn will still be there a century later at Plas Draw.

In Llanelidan and Derwen, in 1544, all the larger landowners have Welsh names apart from the Salesburies who were thoroughly Cambricised.

A Major rebuilding of gentry properties in rural Wales occurred. ‘A revolution was taking place in domestic architecture’ and 1550-1650 is known as the period of the great rebuilding. They built marvellous timber framed houses in Dyffryn Clwyd. Many were built on the contour line between cultivated land and mountain sheep pasture, which underlines the important role of the wool industry in creating wealth in Dyffryn Clwyd. Bachymbyd, Pant Glas Isaf, Derwen Hall, Plas Uchaf, Plas Draw and Plas yn Llan are all timber framed buildings, which developed in the later medieval period and for a time became estate centres.

Plas yn Llan.jpg

Plas yn Llan, Langynhafal

A Major rebuilding of gentry properties in rural Wales occurred. ‘A revolution was taking place in domestic architecture’ and 1550-1650 is known as the period of the great rebuilding. They built marvellous timber framed houses in Dyffryn Clwyd. Many were built on the contour line between cultivated land and mountain sheep pasture, which underlines the important role of the wool industry in creating wealth in Dyffryn Clwyd. Bachymbyd, Pant Glas Isaf, Derwen Hall, Plas Uchaf, Plas Draw and Plas yn Llan are all timber framed buildings, which developed in the later medieval period and for a time became estate centres.

In Llangynhafal, the subsidy records show three properties of similar values; these became known as Plas yn Llan, Plas Draw and Plas yn Rhos. The presence of three roughly similarly sized estates close together made the expansion of any one of them difficult, but would have allowed a combination through marriage.

At Plas Draw, Llangynhafal, Henrician tax records show the property was in the hands of Robtus ap Gruff ap lln ap engion in 1544 and matching field names in later documents show his descendants, adopting the family name of Wynn, still there nearly two centuries later.[1] In 1606, Richard ap John ap Robert ap Gruffithe, his grandson, is there with Edward Wynn, Richard’s own son and heir apparent. Richard’s father was John Wyn ap Robert ap Griffith, who was a waiter in the queen's ewry. The name Wyn recurs in the family as a second name and appears to have been adopted as a family name in the seventeenth century. Richard ap John was a poet, patron of bards, and copyist, whose works survive in several national manuscript collections. Collecting and studying old manuscripts, researching old words and explaining their meanings, he was known as Richard ap John of Scorlegan a township, which soon disappeared, but there can be little doubt that his home was at Plas Draw.[2]

In 1606 Plas Draw is described as ‘One house mansion in which said Edward now lives containing 9 bays one barn containing 5 bays one bakery of 3 bays one le Cowehouse and one stable containing 3 bays one le deriehouse containing 3 bays one other house containing 3 bays and half one orchard 2 gardens 2 les yards containing by estimation 3 acres.'[3] This was a substantial house with outbuildings including a large mansion, a large barn, a barn and a dairy. In 2003, it had a hall, drawing room, dining room, sitting room, kitchen, utility room, cloakroom, cellar and 4 bedrooms.

The last of the Wynne family at Plas Draw was Dr. Edward Wynne, a younger son of Mr. Humphrey Wynne of Llangynhafal and of Maes-y-coed in the parish of Caerwys who matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, on 18th March 1686-7 aged 18 and died at Plas Draw, Llangynhafal, where he was buried 24th November 1730. Plas Draw was sometimes called Plas Pella.[4] His son and heir, John Wynne lived at Copperlene in Flintshire, which became part of the Mostyn estate and as late as the mid- nineteenth century, their descendants lived near Wrotham, Kent.[5]

Plas Draw was sold by the Copperlene family in 1744[6] and was then held by the Hughes family and from them the property descended by marriage to the Davies family and then the Dentons until the early twentieth century.[7]


The Davies properties in Llangynhafal were the second largest estate in the parish at the turn of the nineteenth century.[8] 

At Llangynhafal, right on the edge of the sheepwalks on the Clwydian Hills, a mansion was described in 1606 as ‘2 houses mansions of 7 bays, 2 barnes of 8 bays, one bakery of 2 bays, one stable of 2 bays. one pvulu cottage of one bay, 4 orchards 2, gardens and two les yards to the house watching’. Two of its fields are called kae ar y llann and kae tan y lan so this house is close to the parish church and is probably Plas yn Llan.[9] The subsidy record of 1544 shows it was owned by John ap Gruff ap Dicus[10] and in 1606 it was owned by Gruffith ap Harry ap Howell Goch and John ap Gruffyth, his son.

By 1610, it was owned by Mauriceus Wynne gen. I have found no document showing how Mauriceus got Plas yn Llan but on his marriage land called Tir y Llan is contained in the settlement. By the middle of the 17th century both Plas yn Draw and Plas yn Llan are owned by families called Wynn.

Plas yn Llan was the largest estate in Llangynhafal in terms of tax paid in 1729.

Mauriceus or Maurice and sometimes Maurice and his descendants lived in Plas yn Llan throughout the seventeenth century. In 1722 William Wynne was living there and his mother lived at Plas yn Rhos. After his death in 1732, Rhos became the centre of a small estate. which included Plas yn Llan. Shortly after, this small estate became part of the Wynne of Llanefydd estate on the marriage of John Wynne and William Wynne’s daughter, Dorothy Williams.


Plas yn Llan was leased to tenants and in 1775, Edward Jones, already occupying Plâs yn llan, was the long-term tenant. His son hosted a visit by William Wordsworth.

John Wynne of Coed Coch and Trofarth married Dorothy, sister and co. heiress of John Wynne of Rhos and Plas Uchaf, in Carwedfynydd township, Llannefydd. As a result of the marriage, Plas Uchaf, Llannefydd, became part of the Coed Coch and Trofarth estate as did the Dyffryn Clwyd properties.


Plas Ucha, Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd is another small estate, which emerged in Tudor times. In 1586 it was owned by Thomas Morys of Llanfair and passed through his daughter to the Goodmans. Morys leased substantial properties from the lordship of Ruthin including mills and the castle park around Ruthin and the lordship of Llwynedd above Llanrhudd and he was well connected to local ‘brethren’, which included the Thelwall family. In the 17th century it was at the centre of a small Goodman estate.

Plas Ucha before.jpg
Plas Ucha after.jpg

Plas Ucha, Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd, before and after renovation

Plas Ucha is a hall-house of c1500 with a small later rear wing. The end-bays of the main range were probably of two storeys from the start, with a staircase at each end; but the centre was originally a full-height hall with central hearth and smoke louvre in the roof.

The house retains many features of its medieval layout. A fine mid-hall truss is exposed upstairs with traces of the smoke louvre. There seem to have been two main building phases, the first c.1500 when it consisted of a hall and cross passage between the two bays containing the solar and service quarters. The second phase was undertaken c.1650 when it was reconstructed in two storeys with very tall chimneys.

Plas Ucha was sold to the Thelwall of Plas-y-Ward and passed to the Williams, eventually the Watkin Williams-Wynn.

The house and land were eventually purchased by Sir A.E.H. Naylor-Leyland, Bart., Nantclwyd Hall, and sold to John Kerfoot who was responsible for the late twentieth century restoration.


By mid-Stuart times a group of larger country houses had emerged as shown in the 1666 Hearth Tax returns. This was the principl tax in late Stuart times. The tax fell on the number of hearths in a house and produces a reasonably accurate picture of house size and wealth.

LLANRHUDD John Thelwall 9; LLANYNYS Edward Thelwall esq 11 and one more in dispute; LLANHYCHAN John Thelwall 11; LLANELIDAN Mr Euball Thelwall 11; LLANFAIR Garthgunnon township Mrs Jane Winn 14, Mr William Lloyd 6 ditto more stopt up 3 Mr Ambrose Thelwell 8, Mrs Hugh Roberts 7 ditto more in dispute being stopt up; Eyarth township. William Parry esqr 2 Lady Margratt 6 ditto in another house ditto in 3 outhouses 3, ADDITIONAL William Parry esq 7.[11] The largest houses are LLANYNYS Edward Thelwall esq at Plas y Ward, LLANHYCHAN John Thelwall at Plas Coch, LLANFAIR Garthgunnon township Mrs Jane Winn at Garthgynan and LLANFAIR William Parry and his mother at Llwyn Ynn.


What became known as the Llwyn Ynn estate in Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd was formed at the end of the 16th century through the merger of properties in Llanfair and the Caerddinog estate in Llanelidan. The estates were combined in the person of Edward Price of Llwyn Ynn.[12]  His father was John ab Rhys of Caerddinog.

Llwyn Ynn Hall.jpg

Llwyn Ynn Hall  (Lot 1)

16th century subsidies, the main government taxes, show no property names only owners/occupiers and values. In the Henrician Subsidy of 1544, Gruff ap Ieuan ap David’s ownership in Llanfair is in the top two estates in value and equal to two others in the amount of tax paid.[13] In the Elizabethan subsidy of 1597, his son, Edro ap John Gruff ap Ieuan is in the same property with Edro Price while Edro Price’s father is in Llanlidan [14]. Why Edro Price was with Edro ap John is not known but by 1621, Edwardus Price de lloyn inne et mater eius (and his mother) 40/- are shown together in the same property.[15] This Edward ap John (Pryse) was High Sheriff of Denbighshire in 1627.

When the Llwyn Ynn estate was sold in 1913, the sale plans show the estate as two separate groups of properties; the larger Llwyn Ynn portion of the estate and a smaller western portion including Caerddinen farm with land owned by others separating them and running north to south from Rhyd y Meudwy to Cricor Mountain. The two estates joined in the sixteenth century were never physically linked up.



The Salesbury Estate


The first recorded purchase by the Salusbury family in Llanelidan was in 1492 and they continued buying land in Llanelidan for most of the sixteenth century. Robert was succeeded by his son, Hugh. The Salesbury purchases were scattered throughout the townships of Llanelidan, Garthneuadd and Caervillo and possibly in 1549 they purchased land at the heart of what eventually became Nantclwyd Park from the Price family of Derwen Hall. By 1574, Hugh’s grandson, Thomas owned six messuages, one corn mill, one fulling mill, and 282 acres of land in Nancloyd, Garthnevath, and Brynkymer. This grandson, Thomas ap John Wynne ap Hugh Salusbury and Gwen, his wife began selling land in Llanelidan in 1584.

By 1605 their manor house, Plas ymhont y go and the surrounding lands were in the control of outsiders, possibly as a result of mortgage arrangements.

Nantclwyd Demesne.jpg

FRO D/DM/162/37 Map of Nantclwyd Demesne, Denbighshire, 19th century

The Parry Estate

Thomas Wynne ap John ap Harry began buying land from Thomas ap John Wyn ap Hugh Salesbury and Gwen, his wife in 1579. By the time of his death, Thomas Wynne late of Ruthin, gent had made 11 land purchases from the Salesburies and five from others. They seem to have been speculative purchases; the Salesburies needed to sell land and Thomas Wynne ap John ap Harry had the resources to buy land. He lived in Castle Street, Ruthin, in what became Nantclwyd y Dre and the only evidence that has survived of his business interests is a transaction where he seems to have lent money based on pawning jewellery[16] and a deal involving the tithes of Llanynys.[17]

His son, Simon Parry, a lawyer of of Grayse Inne, co. Middlesex, gent continued to purchase property  In 1620 he bought the Salesbury manor house and surrounding land.[18] This new purchase fitted in well with the land he already owned in Nantclwyd.[19] He was succeeded by his son, William Parry and Plas ym-hont y go had become Nantclwyd by 1629.[20]

By 1679 Simon and his son had acquired an extensive estate ranging beyond Llanelidan including Llanfair, Clawddnewydd, Derwen, Llanrhaeadr, Llanrhudd, and Llanarmon. All these property transactions can be found in the Crosse of Shaw Hill collection in the National Library of Wales. The last property transaction, not just by the Thelwalls but also the last transaction in the Crosse of Shaw Hill collection, is in 1710 so the estate built up by the Parrys and Thelwalls was not enlarged further before the estate was acquired by the Bullens and Leyland bank in the 1830s.[21]

From Kenrick to Naylor Leyland

The estate started by Thomas Wyn ap Harry would stay in his bloodline until the start of the Victorian Age. The bankruptcy of Richard Kenrick saw the estate repossessed by the Bullens and Leyland bank and, despite attempts to sell it, the estate remains with the family of the original bank owners.


The Salesbury family of Bachymbyd were established on this site towards the end of the C15 as a junior branch of the Salusburys of Lleweni. During the C16 and C17 the family rose to become one of the leading gentry families in North Wales and had acquired a second seat, Rug, near Corwen.  


The most distinguished member of the family was Colonel William Salesbury, known as 'Hen Hosanau Gleision' (Old Blue Stockings); his stout courage and unswerving loyalty as royalist defender of Denbigh Castle during the Civil Wars earned him great respect.

The present house represents a complete rebuilding of the ancient seat by his second son, Charles Salusbury; it is dated 1666. A stylish two-and-a-half storey brick house, it originally consisted of a 7-bay main block with advanced flanking wings of 2 bays each. Only the right wing now stands, the truncated left gable end (where the missing wing should be) was remodelled in brick and sandstone c1960 by K W Favell.


Llanfair Tax returns show Garthgynan in Myddelton ownership 1544 – 1625. The Myddelton family had an earlier involvement with Garthgynan. Thomas Myddelton, a merchant of Chester and one-time Mayor and Alderman of that city, seems to have been the first. While it is not clear how Garthgynan came into his possession, the Court Roll of Llannerch commote records that on 5th May 1508, Thomas claimed from Reginald de Grey and Margaret his wife a messuage, mill and lands in Garthgynan and it would appear that Myddelton's action succeeded.

garthgynan 1.jpg
garthgynan 2.jpg

Garthgynan is possibly a mid-17th century house. The original house appears to have been of stone, but either it was partially rebuilt at an early date in brickwork, or the original builders changed material. Built into the adjacent cottage and outbuilding is a datestone of 1658 with initials WW, probably taken from the house during an alteration. The garden layout emphasises the gentry status of Garthgynan.

The front (north) elevation has been much refashioned. It appears to have been brickwork from the start, probably of five bays, with stone quoins and two stone string courses. It was completely refenestrated in the late 18th century.

The house was perhaps built by William Wynn, who was sheriff of Denbigh in 1651and owned it in 1654 and it was sold to William Williams of Glascoed, co. Denbigh, esq., an ancestor of the Wynnstay estate, in 1684. It was sold by the Wynnstay estate in 1917.


The estate developed probably by the Price family originated within the lordship park of Brynciffo. The Prices were selling parts of the park in 1549 and field names show the park lay northwest and north of Derwen church with other parts identifiable beyond Derwen Hall and around Nantclwyd.

derwen hall.jpg

Derwen Hall is listed Grade II*. It has a main range with decoratively braced timber framing characteristic of the late 16th century and a forward wing nearly at right angles in simpler framing. The fenestration, the main doorway and internal features suggest a major renovation took place at the end of the 18th century possibly under the ownership of the Panton family.[22] The forward wing contains the kitchen of the house, with a large original chimney. The siting of the wing is unusual, returning forwards from the main range. As the decorative framing of the main range extends across the link section, it is likely the two ranges are contemporary.

The house was the family home of eight generations of the Price family. They were there in 1548 and the last male heir was the Rev. John Price born in the mid/late 18th century; this line may well have originated in the late C16 when the main range of the house was built. Through marriage, the estate passed to the Jones family of Plas Gwyn, Anglesey, then the Pantons of Bagillt, Flintshire and afterward the Vivian family of Cornwall.


Glan y Wern, Llandyrnog was the property of the Powell family and sixteenth and seventeenth century tax returns show the Powells as owners of small houses with large numbers of family members. By 1759, the male line of the Powells had been extinguished when Henry Powell's heiress, Catherine, married Hugh Clough.[23] Hubbard states that the dates 1813 and 1814 are to be found on the building.

The house is based on a partially surviving C18 house but owes its architectural character to extensive work of c1810. The original house constitutes the north-east (north) corner of the house as now found; its brick-vaulted cellars extend out beneath what is now a yard and garage area to the north and east, implying that considerable parts were demolished.

Glanywern 1.jpg

This large house was under construction in 1816. The survival of a large country house with 10 guest bedrooms and 8 servant rooms in its garden and parkland setting is remarkable. When finished Glan y wern hall contained an ‘entrance hall 28ft by 21 ft; library 21ft by 21ft 6ins; drawing room 31ft 6 ins by 21 ft; billiard hall 22 x 20; inner hall 21 x 18; good smoke room; study; 10 best bedrooms and 3 dressing rooms. For the staff there were 8 servants’ rooms; butler’s room; butler’s pantry; still room; house-keeper’s room;

Its setting is impressive. It was approached by two carriage drives, at the entrance of one of them was a picturesque lodge. It stands in the middle of a handsome park, with large plantations of ash, oak, elm, lime, chestnut, beech and sycamore etc. It is listed at Grade II* as a fine country house of the Regency period, retaining its parkland setting.


There were 2 walled and productive kitchen gardens, 2 glass houses, a walled orchard. For stabling there were one three-stall stable, a two-stall stable, two loose boxes, two large coach houses, saddle room, fodder room, granary and corn.


The Cloughs were responsible for this major rebuilding and then, disaster struck. They had established a private bank in 1794 at Llanrwst and Denbigh under the name "Clough, Mason and Co." The depression following the Napoleonic wars occasioned the collapse of many private banks, including this one. It transpired not to be a total disaster for when the firm's assets were realised, it was found that they were solvent. However, in this process the estates of Glan-y-Wern and of Bathafarn, Ruthin were put up for sale on 29th October 1818.


Williams says the Maddocks family probably purchased the estate in 1818. The estate was again up for sale on 13th September 1893. It had grown somewhat and comprised some 2,051 acres. This included land/property in the parishes of Llandyrnog, Llangwyfan, Llanrhaiadr, Nannerch, and Ysceifiog, and the ancient residences of Plas Llangwyfan [dated 1589] and Fron Yw [1655]. Glan-y­-Wern and the home farm were withdrawn at £16,500, but Hugh Robert Hughes of Kinmel purchased them privately.


There was yet another sale in 1913, following Hughes' death. By this time, the estate had dwindled to 1,500 acres. This sale gave the Maddocks family an opportunity to return. The hall and farm were initially withdrawn at £15,000 but then sold privately to Major Maddocks, a descendant of the earlier family who became Brigadier-General W.R.N. Madocks, CB., CMG., DSO.


Llanbedr Hall was from the 16th Century a Thelwall property until it was sold by Rev Edward Thelwell in 1786 to Joseph Ablett. Ablett’s family originally came from Suffolk, but his father flourished as a prosperous manufacturer of thread and fustian in the north-west. Ablett's inheritance at an early age enabled him to retire to the Vale of Clwyd.

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The first known plan of Llanbedr Estate is dated 1744 and shows two views of the garden. ‘A sketch copied from this, shows the parkland area around the house. The drive to the house is shown with an avenue of trees to the left (north) side. Also to the north are two ponds from one of which a stream goes into the garden’ [24]

When Walter Savage Landor visited Llanbedr in 1832, he wrote to his sister: ‘Llanbedr is really in all respects the most delightful place I ever was in. Magnificent trees, the richest valley in the world and the most varied hills with lofty mountains not too near nor too far’.

Llanbedr Hall was rebuilt following a fire in 1865 and became a tuberculosis sanatorium in 1918.[25]  Members of the comedy war time I.T.M.A. team visited Jack Train (one of their team, who was then a patient) filling the house with their jokes and laughter.'


The name most associated with Bathafam is that of "Thelwall", in particular John Wynn Thelwall of Plas-y­-Ward (1528 - 1586). He married Jane Griffith of Pant Llongdu, Flintshire, and was Steward of Ruthin Lordship and held Bathafarn lands in that capacity. A monument to them and their ten children can be seen in St. Meugan’s Church, Llanrhudd.

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Bathafarn c. 1770

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Bathafarn c. 1919

The present house is essentially an early C19 remodelling of an earlier, probably late C17 or early C18 house, and was perhaps originally of double-pile plan [a Moses Griffiths watercolour (c1770) shows a 7-bay house with segmental-headed windows and parapets]. The main facades of the present house were cosmetically altered c1910 when they were roughcast and given applied classical detailing (pilasters, cornice, doorcase etc.) in cement plaster. The house is currently split up into seven flats. (Listing details)


John Wynn and Jane's son, another John, in 1600 obtained the grant of the Bathafam lands from the Crown for £40. This John spent his youth at Court as Groom of the Stole and Gentleman Usher to the Countess of Warwick who ownes the Ruthin lordship.


The Bathafarn estate descended in the male line after John Thelwall (d.1630) until the death of another John Thelwall, whose heir was his daughter, Mary. She married Robert Price of Rhiwlas (d. 1766). Their son, Thelwall Price, bequeathed the Bathafarn estate on his death to his cousin Richard Price-Thelwall (1720-1775). Richard, on his death in 1775, bequeathed the estate to Richard Tavistock, alias Richard Price (1755-1794).


His only daughter Charlotte Carter Thelwall was a minor [c.18 years of age] but she carried [c.July 1791] the estate to her husband, Lord William Beauclerk, second son of the Duke of St. Albans. Charlotte died in September 1797 and Lord William married again, selling the Bathafarn estate to the Rev. Roger Clough, of Castle House, Denbigh. The selling process, commenced in 1799 was not completed until May 1811.


Roger Clough, [1759-1833], was a distinguished ecclesiastic, Rector of Llansannan, Vicar of Corwen, Canon of St. Asaph, and a magistrate. He made a name as an agriculturalist by his work at Eriviat, Denbigh and at Bathafarn in the mould of ["Turnip"] Townshend and Coke of Holkham. Gwallter Mechain [Rev. Walter Davies] reported in his "General View of Agriculture and Domestic Economy of North Wales" (1810) that Clough improved Eriviat farm in the period 1792-1797, spending £100 p.a. on hedging, draining, irrigating etc., although he was only a tenant. He carried this on at Bathafarn, paying £50 per week for labourers and artificers. For this, he was awarded a Gold Medal by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts in 1807.

In 1831, Roger Clough sold the Bathafarn estate to Joseph Ablett, who had purchased the Llanbedr Hall estate from Rev. Edward Thelwall. Ablett is a big name in 19th century Denbighshire, remembered for his philanthropy and support for the North Wales Asylum in Denbigh. Ablett died in January 1848. The now combined estates passed to John Jesse, a distant cousin of Ablett's and a Manchester surgeon.


Jesse died aged 61 on 26th September 1863 and his son John Fairfax Jesse, by his third wife Elizabeth, inherited the estate in November 1865 on the death of his stepbrother, Francis Ablett Jesse. John Fairfax Jesse died in 1911.


By the end of the C 19th, the estate was heavily mortgaged. An attempt was made in 1889 to sell the estate but the reserve price was not reached. The Llanbedr Hall and Bathafarn estate, extending to 3000 acres from Hirwaen, Llanbedr to Moel Llech above Bacheirig, was sold by auction in October 1919. The sale price totalled between £ 57,060 and £ 60,000.

Bathafarn Hall was on the market again in 1952, when the home farm was advertised with 70 acres.


Pool Park estate is a tale of two inter-related families - one Welsh and one English: the Salesbury and Bagot families. They owned the house and estate from the early seventeenth century to 1932, some 300 years. The most famous of the Salesbury family was Colonel William Salesbury (1580–1660), Royalist governor of Denbigh castle in the Civil War, who would only surrender the castle on the instruction of the king.  He quarrelled bitterly with his heir, Owen, and split his extensive landholdings between him and his brother, Charles. Owen got the Rug mansion and the Meirionnydd lands; while Charles acquired the Bachymbyd and Pool Park estates.

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He quarrelled bitterly with his heir, Owen, and split his extensive landholdings between him and his brother, Charles. Owen got the Rug mansion and the Meirionnydd lands; while Charles acquired the Bachymbyd and Pool Park estates.


Charles Salesbury died without a male heir, so the Bachymbyd estate (which included Pool Park) passed to his daughter, Jane, Jane Salesbury married Sir Walter Bagot, 3rd Baronet, of Blithfield Hall, Staffordshire, in 1670, so the estate became part of the larger Bagot lands.


This acquisition of 17,500 acres in Denbighshire and parts of Merionethshire doubled Bagot’s income and acreage, making him the largest landowner in Staffordshire. The Bagots from their Welsh and English estates gained an income of over £22,000 in 1886. This has been estimated as equivalent to over £2,500,000 in today’s money; and half came from the Welsh estate.

The second Baron rebuilt the house between 1826 and 1829 in an Elizabethan revival style, which cost £4,600 and this became the principal house of the Denbighshire estate for a while. The 1928 sale gives a description of the house – a ‘moderately-sized mansion’ with 6 bedrooms, 2 guest bedrooms and 9 maids’ bedrooms, It was tenanted by a succession of wealthy English people such as Blezard and Tate.


The second Baron Bagot created Lady Bagot’s Drive to link Pool Park with Bachymbyd in Rhewl without having to leave Bagot land - possibly in the 1820s. It was certainly there in the late 1830s when the survey work for the 1839 Tithe Maps was being undertaken. The carriage drive was to link Pool Park, via its north lodge (now Bingley Lodge), by a more direct route along minor roads to Bontuchel bridge where the upper end of the Drive begins, and then through Rhewl village to the nearby lesser family home of Bachymbyd. 


There was much rebuilding of gentry mansions in the 19th century; a new residence at Llanychan was built from 1867 for John Taber. Nantclwyd Hall and Ruthin Castle were significantly expanded, Ruthin being rebuilt and expanded in two phases in the 1820s and the 1850s and others such as Vron Yw were refurbished.

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John Taber's Clwyd Hall

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Vron Yw


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In 1876, in the county of Denbigh, there were altogether 5708 landowners, the total extent of land being 367,229 acres, and the aggregate rental 460,421; but it must be remembered that 18,812 acres were commons or waste land. Owners of one acre or more numbered 2272, and they possessed 347,696 acres.

Large estates in Denbighshire


Many Dyffryn Clwyd estates were owned by distant owners or were part of aggregations of estates. Glanywern; Plas Ashpool; Wynnstay; Plas y Ward*; Garthgynan*; Bachymbyd/Pool Park; Ruthin (to 1819); Coed Marchan*; Llysfasi* Llwyn Ynn; Llanbedr Hall; Bathafarn; Llangynhafal; Berth; Eyarth, Cerrigllwydion.

*Estates swallowed up by other estates




The larger estates had core facilities. At Bontuchel, the Pool Park estate had an agent’s office, a sawmill and a lodge and tenants ran an inn, a shop and a smithy in or close to the village. At Llanelidan, the Nantclwyd Hall estate had an agent’s office, a shop and an inn.



Within the multi roomed large houses, the gentry lived very well. A visitor to Ruthin Castle today will see enormous reception rooms. Even the smaller country house owners would greet their guests in a variety of large well-appointed reception rooms. At Plas y Ward in 1683, at the end of the Thelwall occupancy the house boasted a hall, new parlour, great parlour, and the yellow room.

Plas Llangwyfan, towards the end of the 19th century and long after it had become a farmhouse, had a dining room (on the) ground floor and a drawing (room) on the 1st floor, a small parlour, a parlour and a wainscoted parlour. Pentrecelyn Hall had a spacious and lofty hall and 3 entertaining rooms  and at Ty Mawr, Pentrecoch, Llanfair D.C., there were a Morning room, Front hall, Drawing room and Dining room.


Clockwise from top left: Ruthin Castle, Nantclwyd Hall, Llwyn Ynn staircase and Llwyn Ynn

Houses with a long history of occupation by the same family often had generations of furniture and artwork to display. Llwyn Ynn, with its Elizabethan old oak refectory table, Cromwellian brass lantern clock and Stuart, William and Mary and Queen Anne furniture was not alone in possessing expensive survivals from past generations, but perhaps was exceptional in avoiding some of the destruction and discarding of heirlooms caused by changing fashions. The early decision by the owning family to select other properties as their principal residence made Llwyn Ynn into something of a time capsule until the dispersal sale of 1937.


The Gentry were great entertainers on a scale that we can perhaps not fully understand. Mrs Cornwallis West for her ‘at home function’ in 1903 invited the judge of Assise, the High Sheriff, the Bishop and over a score of local Gentry families and numerous others of the great and the good. The gardens would have been at their best, there was a band and tennis and croquet were played.

In 1885 at Nantclwyd, so many attended an event that the train in the evening, which left after the fireworks at 10.44, was crowded, and a large portion had to be left behind, the train returning to Nantclwyd again after running to Denbigh, to fetch home the remainder of the visitors.

The Conservative Party’s new mass membership, ladies organisation, the Primrose League, held major events called demonstrations at country houses. The League was organised into habitations. In 1897 they were at Nantclwyd Park. The press takes up the story:

PRIMROSE LEAGUERS AT NANTCLWYD. RUTHIN HABITATION'S ANNUAL FETE. GENEROUS ENTERTAINMENT BY MRS. NAYLOR LEYLAND. The annual demonstration in connection with the Ruthin Habitation (No 904) of the Primrose League was held yesterday (Thursday), in Nantclwyd Park.

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Insignia of the Primrose League

Most of the members and friends proceeded to Nantclwyd by special train at half-past two, others coming by the quarter-past four train. On leaving Nantclwyd station, and entering the park, the visitors found a lengthy procession, four deep, and marched past "Mrs Naylor Leyland (the Dame President) with her house party, and Mr G H Denton (Ruling Councillor), who stood at what might be called the saluting point."

‘The muster of 41 knights, dames and associates from all parts of the district was very large. It may be mentioned that the Clawddnewydd contingent was gratifyingly numerous, in command of their Warden Mr Joseph Williamson of Derwen Hall. No fewer than 25 new members have joined in this wardenship since the spring'.

In 1888, ‘1500 members of the Southport Habitation of the Primrose League, visited the Vale of Clwyd, In all there were 1570 forming the excursion which, starting from Southport about 7 o'clock, reached the Vale from 10 to 11 o'clock, being conveyed here in three trains, one of which stopped at Denbigh, and the other two going on to Ruthin and Nantclwyd where they were met with a hearty welcome by Mr William Hepburn, who showed them through the grounds. Here the visitors were disappointed. It had been arranged that at Nantclwyd they were to meet, and to be spoken to, by Mr Curzon, M.P., who, having to attend to important Parliamentary duties, was unavoidably absent. They traversed all the grounds and viewed the Hall, which was thrown open through the kindness of Mrs Naylor Leyland, and returned to Ruthin about one o'clock, where Mr McLeod (hon. secretary) had previously alighted to make preparation for their reception’.

Gentry families liked to publicise and celebrate in public family occasions such as marriages. For the marriage of E Lloyd junr of Rhaggatt and Miss Madocks of Glanywern in 1855, the villages of Llandyrnog and Llangwyfan were adorned with decorations. a very imposing arch was erected over the road. Opposite the lodge was an optical design of pillars and ornamented with evergreens and white banners with several others in the village. There was a procession of at least 160 children from the school to the lodge gates. On entering the park, a country dance was struck up and then they adjourned to Siop Waen and then to the hall where the housekeeper the coachman and other domestics were arranged in front. Preparations had been made in the servants’ hall for the children with well heaped piles of cake with no lack of the beverage which cheers but not inebriates. The tenants and well-wishers of the family were assembled into three parties which gathered at the Fronview Arms, the house of Mr Fox and the Bee, Llangwyfan. There were many long speeches and loyalist songs and copious toasts.

For the coming-of-age festivities of J.F. Jesse, the businessmen of Ruthin asked the mayor to recommend closing shops offices and places of business at 3:00 o'clock so that those employed could attend the rejoicings; there is no doubt an element of vested interest here as expenditure on the celebrations would inevitably involve many of the businessmen supplying necessities for the occasion.


The pinnacle of social entertaining were the balls and each of the larger mansions would have held a ball as the richer families tried to outdo each other, and the impact of the balls spread well beyond the environment of the mansions and into the streets of Ruthin.

The press was there to record the extravagance and list the lucky families invited to attend. ‘A ball of exceptional brilliance and splendour came off at Nantclwyd Hall, near Ruthin, on Tuesday evening, when Lieut.-Colonel and Mrs. Naylor Leyland assembled around them about 200 guests, including the elite of the Yale of Clwyd and surrounding district, as well as many of their personal friends from various parts of England. A special train, consisting of saloons, left St. Asaph and Denbigh soon after ten o'clock at night, arriving with the guests at Nantclwyd station about 10.30, in charge of Inspector Martin. The platform of the station was carpeted, and an awning placed over it, whilst the waiting-room was very prettily decorated by Mr. Wellington, the stationmaster. At the station numerous carriages were in waiting to convey the party to the hall; other visitors arriving from all directions by road. Dancing took place in the large and handsome ballroom in front of the house, which had been specially illuminated by means of the electric light and presented with its very handsome fittings and other adornments a unique and most beautiful appearance, calling forth the admiration of all who had the privilege of seeing it. Seventy electric lights had been provided, and issued forth from pretty little glass globes, some of them being effectively and prettily shaded. The apparatus for working the light was set up in the back portion of the house, and was worked by a steam engine, ...With the greatest ease and in a marvellous short space of time a flood of light is poured into the room, by means of the encased wires connecting the ball room with the apparatus referred to. In addition to this supper, the library was set apart as a refreshment room. Whilst everything that taste or skill could devise had been done to render the guests happy, and to make the event a thorough success, the servants of the visitors were not forgotten, and by Colonel and Mrs. Leyland's orders, Mr. Foweraker (the head coachman), and Mrs. Foweraker, provided an excellent supper for about 70 servants.

At Pool Park, the press reported ‘The interior of the extremely interesting residence was turned into a complete fairy palace by the aid of the florists and decorators. Mr. Thomas Lillywhite from the establishment of Mr. James Bromwich FRHS, 25, Buckingham Palace Road London, had been sent down to supervise the decorations. Every portion of the entrance hall, grand staircase and corridors were effectively and tastefully decorated. In the centre of the grand hall stood a magnificient palm some 20 feet high, the fronds of which extended certainly an equal distance.

The menu was, we may remark, printed on Japanese flimsy paper, and quite a novelty in its style. The following is a copy thereof: Consomme Clair. Salmi. Canard sauvage. Faisans rôti. V Tete de sanglier. Saumon a la Royal. Dinde aux truffle. Poulet a la Bechemel. Langue glacee. Pate de Perdreaux. Petite Bouchee de Poisson. Soles en Aspic. Jambon Glacee. Poulet rote. Kari d'Homard. Mayonais 6 variétè. Salads. Patisserie, j Gelee. Creme. Kogafc. Eclairi. Brioche. Savurin. Croque en Bouche. Glace. Eau des Cerises. Creme de Pain Brun’.

Some of the gentry were well connected to Central European families. The Cornwallis Wests married into a German Silesian family, the Hochberg, Princes of Pless, while the Naylor Leylands were entertaining European nobility, including the German Ambassador and his wife as late as 1910.


Gentry attitudes to the nonconformist congregations in their midst evolved from hostility through grim acceptance to a tolerant understanding, and occasionally to something akin to neighbourliness. In 1906, Lady Naylor Leyland, of Nantclwyd Hall, very generously responded to the appeal to support the renovation of the Llanelidan Methodist chapel made to her by Mr T O Jones, Penyparc, one of the senior deacons, and subscribed the handsome donation of £ 20, 'a gift which was recognised with every appreciation, not only by members of the cause at Llanelidan, but generally. In order to manifest the feeling of thanks which prevailed amongst them, the members cordially invited Lady Naylor Leyland to attend a service in the chapel, and this Her Ladyship did on Sunday morning last, when she was accompanied by her two sons (Sir Edward Naylor Leyland and Mr George Naylor Leyland)’. At Gyffylliog the support of the Curry family was rewarded by Mrs Currie being asked to lay a foundation stone for the new Chapel.


This more tolerant view of non-conformity as the century wore on probably affected their attitude to the Welsh language. John Jesse said that he had instructed his children in the Welsh language and he had always contributed to the schools of Dissenters, and would continue to do so, although a Churchman himself.



At Christmas, coal and flannel were given by gentry families to the poor of their parishes. In 1873, the Naylor Leylands distributed amongst them thirty-four tons of coals. In 1879 at Nantclwyd and the surrounding district a large quantity of coal, food, and clothing was given away. In 1859 John Jesse Esq., of Llanbedr Hall distributed to the inmates of the Llanrhudd Alms Houses, six cart loads of firewood and 10s. worth of coal, one quarter of prime mutton; one peck of potatoes and 1.5s. in cash, was given to each house. Clothing clubs were patronised by the gentry and Mrs Naylor Leyland of Nantclwyd Hall, with her usual liberality, subscribed handsomely to the Llanelidan club.


In January 1914 at Llanelidan, coal, in quantities of half-a-ton, was distributed and, through the kindness of the farmers, was delivered at the door of each recipient free of charge. On New Year’s Day a further distribution of seasonable gifts, consisting of flannel, half-crown pieces, and packets of tea, was made among the poor women of the parish, and gold coins and Cardigan jackets among the employees on the estate.



The gentry supported schools and the education of children with a strong bias towards Anglican schools i.e. British schools - especially during the early to mid-19th century. The establishment of Llanychan school received strong support from John Tabor a local gentleman and a newcomer to the area who presented land for the new school at Llanychan as well as building a new residence for himself. Another new arrival, Christopher Bullen gave land for a new school at Llanelidan.[26]


The church was vigorously supported by the gentry. Mrs Naylor Leyland left provision for a new church house in Llanelidan village and the Cornwallis Wests gave land for a new church room in Efenechtyd. They were strong supporters of Church renovation campaigns throughout the area and also gave expensive gifts to churches such as Mrs Naylor Leyland who gave ‘a most handsome cross in commemoration of the diamond jubilee’.

The young heir of Rhaggatt and Berth, Mr. E. O. V. Lloyd, opened a chapel-of-ease at Berth and enlarged the chapel in 1879.



Gabriel Goodman founded and endowed Christ’s Hospital, Ruthin in the sixteenth century and the Pool Park estate founded almshouses at Llanfwrog in 1605 although they were only built in 1708.

Mrs. Owen, Fachclwyd Hall presented the parish of Llanfair with a number of cottages to be used as almshouses, and endowed them in a most liberal manner.  The Abletts at Llanbedr Hall founded almshouses in Llanrhudd, but failed to make any provision for their maintenance.


There were some specific gifts such as and Mr B C Johnson, owner of Llanrhydd estate who was willing to allow the Ruthin Corporation to have the stone off his estate for building purposes, free of charge to build the new council offices in 1907 in Ruthin.


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Hyde Park House ballroom 1902 (left) and (right) 34, Cadogan Square, London

The gentry came and went. The Naylor Leyland fmily spent long periods away in their London home and on their return to the Hall, they were greeted with great enthusiasm as the parish and local retailers benefited greatly from the family while in residence. For the wealthier families much time would be spent in London. Mrs Naylor Leyland at Hyde Park House, Mr and the Hon Mrs George Blezard, Pool Park, Ruthin, at 34, Cadogan Square, and the Cornwallis Wests at 30 Portman Square. This area was heavily bombed in the War, but Cadogan Square survives divided into luxury flats.


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The agents were the top officials on the estate such as Oliver Evans for the Pool Park estate, Col Hughes of Ystrad for Llwyn Ynn and Col Mouseley for Nantclwyd. Other officials occur infrequently.

In the press there are a head-gamekeeper, a head gardener a sub agent and a second footman all on the Pool Park Estate, a working housekeeper and an under groom. An under-game keeper at Pool Park was injured in a shooting accident and went on foot to Ruthin for treatment.

In the census for 1911, Pool Park had a butler, 2 servants, housekeeper, chambermaid, laundry maid, cook, housemaid, kitchen maid and laundry maid. In the bailiff’s house were the bailiff, housewife and dairymaid; in the coachman’s house a coachman, housekeeper, second Cole? Groom, in Commons house call and housewife servant; total 19.

At Nantclwyd Hall, there were a housekeeper, domestic ladies maid, Butler, domestic cook, domestic kitchen maid, 3 house maids and a scullery maid; in the lodge were 4 gardeners; in the cottage 3 gardeners, a Coachman and in the stable yard 2 grooms. In all 19, and there would be others living outside the main property.


The 1880s were a decade of great hardship in the countryside as depression struck agriculture; there were several poor harvests in the 1870s and the harvest of 1879 was disastrous. In 1879 a slump in prices began which did not ease until the first decade of the 20th century mainly caused by imports from North America and Australasia made possible by cheap transport. Between 1879 and 1895 the price of corn fell by half. Estate owner experienced a decrease in incomes.

Between 1900 and 1913 prices of agricultural produce rose by 18% and there was a growth of free hold tenure as landowners began to put their estates on the market.  Estates which had been a central feature in the history of Wales for half a Millennium were beginning to break up.  There were increasing difficulties in selling or even letting estate mansions. At Eyarth in 1908 they looked for someone to air and warm the empty house.

There was a huge boom in land sales immediately after the war and many Welsh estates disappeared. Altogether, at least a quarter of the land of Wales is believed to have changed hands between 1918 and 1922, part of the agrarian revolution which occurred all over Europe. Some landlords chose to sell because of large death duties or heavy debts, but for most of them the motivation was the desire to seize the opportunity to invest in something which could give a better return than land. Welsh landowners were more ready to sell than their English counterparts mainly because the leadership of the landowning class had been much more decisively rejected in Wales than in England. Most of the farms sold were bought by their tenants and it is likely that by 1922, 35% of the farmers of Wales were freeholders compared with 10% before the war. The contraction in the size of estates was to continue in ensuing decades and by 1970, 64% of the land in Wales was owned by the persons cultivating it.

The Llwyn Ynn estate was sold in 1913; the Wynnstay Garthgynan estate in 1917; the Llanbedr Hall and Bathafarn estate in October 1919; Ruthin Castle in 1913 and 1919; Y Berth in 1920 and Pool Park in 1928. With them went the small personnel units that administered them and the much larger household staff. Rural society became dominated by large numbers of heavily indebted owner farmers and a small number of entrepreneurs serving their needs.


Let us look at how one estate fared after its founding. We have already seen how the Llwyn Ynn estate was formed by a union of smaller estates in the late sixteenth century, which created the Price family of Llwyn Ynn.

Edward ap John (Pryse) of Llwyn Ynn was High Sheriff of Denbighshire in 1627. The estate was bequeathed to Edward’s co-heirs, John Pryse and Mary Pryse. Edward Price was succeeded by his son, John Pryse and then his daughter, Mary Parry, widow of Gabriel Parry DD, of Llanrhudd. William Parry, presumably their son, became the owner and the hearth tax returns suggest he succeeded his mother to the estate in 1666.[27] He established a charity to relieve the poor in 1679. He was succeeded by 1698 by David Parry, as noted by Edward Lhwyd in c.1698 in his Parochialia, who died in 1706 and was followed by Henry Parry who was alive in 1728.

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The next owner, John Roberts was the eldest son and heir of Hugh Roberts of Hafod-y-Bwch, Denbighshire, and his wife Anne Wynn Jones, daughter of Richard Wynn Jones of Plas Newydd at Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd. Hafod was a small estate situated near Chirk Castle, but his mother brought Plas Newydd into the family. He entered Gray's Inn in 1687. In 1693, he married Susannah Parry, the daughter and later heiress of William Parry of Llwyn Ynn, Denbighshire. By this marriage he eventually acquired Llwyn Ynn, Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd.

Roberts’ first wife died on 19 January 1722 and he married secondly Jane Morris, the widow of Morris Jones of Llanrhyadr, Denbighshire and daughter of Sir Walter Bagot, 3rd Baronet, MP, of Blithfield, Staffordshire. He died on 4 September 1731. 

By his first wife, he had 3 sons who predeceased him and a daughter. He left his estates to his daughter, Catherine (1694-1751) who in 1714 married Humphrey Parry of Pwll hallog Esq., a descendant of Bishop Richard Parry, one if the translators of the 1620 revision of the Welsh Bible. Humphrey Parry in 1731 became the owner of Plas Llanrhaeadr, Plas Llwyn Ynn & Plas Newydd, Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd in addition to lands elsewhere. From this time, the Parrys would have an increasing choice of mansions in which to live and eventually Llwyn Ynn would cease to be the home of the family.

Humphrey and Catherine were survived by 8 sons and 7 daughters out of 17 children. Humphrey’s son Robert, his successor, chose to live at his mother’s house in Llanrhaeadr. He died in 1759; he described himself as of  ‘Plase newyd in Llanrhaiader in Kinmerch co Denbigh but now of Isleworth co Middlesex’. From 1744 the family were unlikely to be in residence at Llwyn Ynn.

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The next Parry, Richard (owner 1759-1828) developed plans to build a new Llanrhaiadr Hall in 1771 and in September 1772 Richard Parry paid £60 to Robert Adam?  for plans to redesign Llanrhaiadr Hall.[28] In 1785 Richard Parry's mother's brother died and he left Warfield Hall, Berkshire, to Parry. In 1785-88 Richard Parry sold Llanrhaiadr Hall and in c1785-6 the family moved from Wales to Warfield Hall, where they stayed until Richard’s death in 1828. In 1828, his son, another Richard inherited, and Warfield was sold and he returned to Llanfair, firstly to Plas Newydd and then to Llwyn Ynn. He died in 1834 and is buried in the parish churchyard of Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd.[29]

The estate was inherited by the children of his father’s tenth child, Frances Haygarth. The eldest, Francis was still a minor and eventually lost the estate after a legal case. The second son, William, took over until his death in 1902 and left the estate in trust for a charity while making provision for both of his brothers. The estate Haygarth inherited was a wealthy property including part of the Llechwedd y Cyd slate quarry near Ffestiniog.[30]

William Haygarth’s long spell as owner of the estate, during which he was always an absentee landlord, coincided with a long-term tenancy of the hall by the Preston family of Liverpool. Haygarth was an Anglican cleric and a long-time vicar of Wimbledon as well as a canon of Rochester cathedral. He was vicar of Wimbledon during a time of tremendous growth in the parish. He did not neglect his duties as owner of the Llwyn Ynn estate, but interpreted his obligations in a rather different way to his fellow landowners in the Vale of Clwyd whom he must hardly have known.

He gave the estate reputedly the best land agent in north Wales, Colonel Hughes of Ystrad Hall. This very professional land manager created an efficient estate and earned the respect both of his employer and tenants. When the Royal Commission on Land in Wales took evidence in Ruthin, the tenants of the estate made it quite clear to the commissioners that they did not share the negative views of their landlords held by tenants from other estates and had nothing but the highest regard for Canon Haygarth and the estate. Haygarth supported local initiatives and his agent’s successful establishment of a water works on the estate eventually provided water to communities south of Ruthin and nearly all the properties on the estate. [31]

Canon Haygarth’s death was much lamented in the Llanfair area and the people of Wimbledon gave him a huge funeral. Following his death in 1902 the estate would have continued much as during his occupancy while trustees waited for the Preston lease to run out in 1912. The estate was then sold and most of the estate was purchased by sitting tenants.

The mansion failed to sell and was acquired by the new owner of the surrounding land.

The trustees had retained ownership of the house contents. which were only sold off in a large auction in 1937.[32] The house continued to be usable and a school was established there during the Second World War, thereafter it became increasingly derelict and was finally demolished in 1964 apart from a small wing which was retained as a farmhouse and remains there, but in a parlous condition to the present day.[33]

Llwyn Ynn 1930s.jpg

A visiting party at Llwyn Ynn in the 1930s

LLWYN YNN - the building

Llwyn Ynn translates as ‘grove of ash trees’, not to be confused with nearby Llwyn Onn, translated as the singular ‘grove of Ash’. Doubling the consonant is preferable to marking the vowel when it is desired to avoid ambiguity.[34]

The garden elevation illustrates at least three phases of major building activity: stepped gables, with roofs at a low level; then 1640s gables with ball finials on the staircase tower; and nineteenth-century alterations to windows, such as the lowering of the ground floor windows of the stair tower to near ground level.

Nicholas, in 1872, describes the manor house of Llwyn Ynn as ‘of the early Tudor period, and curious not only as an excellent specimen of the domestic architecture of that time, but as having retained its exterior and interior character apparently unchanged to the present date. The old hall and other rooms, with their panelled walls and low ceilings, contain oak woodwork and furniture of great age; while the quaint terrace, the sundial, and iron gates are evidently very ancient.[35]

The foundations of the main house, cellars, portions of the front wall and kitchen chimney also survive, and a systematic archaeological survey would reveal more information as to the actual plan of the house. Llwyn-Ynn was a three-storey long stone house with late-sixteenth-century origins. The house consisted of three units with balancing wings at the dais and passage ends. As there were three building phases, the house was irregular in plan and elevation; it was built of limestone, with a slate roof at two different levels. After the 1560s, as was fashionable in north Wales, stepped gables dominated all four elevations at Llwyn Ynn, in similar fashion to Faenol Fawr. Like Faenol Fawr, the parlour wing was to the left of the hall, with the kitchen and service rooms to the right. Opening from the main hall was a rear stair tower, which contained both the principal and secondary staircases. Typically, the earlier mullioned and transomed windows decrease in length and breadth in each storey.

Baker proposed that an unfinished scheme, perhaps halted by the Civil War, may account for a mixture of sixteenth and seventeenth century building styles. Money appears to have been lavished on the house during the 1670s.[36]

The entrance doorway in the middle of the south front was altered around a century after its erection. A shield above it is dated 1672 and is charged with a cross fleury engrailed between four choughs. A further shield is present bearing three boars' heads impaled with a lion rampant guardant, and the letters WKP for William Parry and his wife Katharine.

Llwyn Ynn wing.jpg

A portion of the house was pulled down on ceasing to be the principal residence of the owners.  A long gallery ran east to west, in similar fashion to Nerquis Hall, Mold, and Henblas, Llanasa. New gates with tall, decorated pillars, topped with urns, bore a date of 1676, and were erected in front of the house. This created a formal forecourt out of the original seventeenth-century terrace, similar to many other Welsh houses.

The surviving secondary house is L-shaped and timber-framed, dated by Cadw to the seventeenth century. The later, linking stone block that joins the two houses together appears to be nineteenth century. The timber range stands on a high stone plinth, with slate roof, dormer and a tall stone chimney of similar design to the chimneys of the stepped gable sections of the main building.

The remaining wing of Llwyn Ynn

As at Faenol Fawr, the service or domestic rooms were later incorporated into this section of the house and included a ‘large’ kitchen, larder, butler’s pantry and a storeroom under the stairs and cellars. Within the connecting range was the housekeeper’s room and scullery. In the half-timbered building was a servants’ hall and bakehouse, with servants’ bedrooms above.

The house was surveyed for the estate sale when the accommodation comprised a noble entrance hall with old flag flooring and panelled oak walls; a comfortable morning room with alcove, a very large and lofty room (now used as a store, but intended for a fine billiard or dining room), a light and cheerful upstairs drawing room with panelled oak walls. On the same floor are three bedrooms, bathroom and WC. On the second floor are six bedrooms and several servant rooms all of which are approached by secondary staircases.[37]

The Prestons had agreed a full maintenance lease with the Haygarths and the new owners of the house commissioned, with a merry will, a detailed survey of the defects and deficiencies and presented the Preston estate with a large bill.[38] The schedule of dilapidations provides extremely detailed evidence for the room divisions and uses in the house down to the last nook and cranny, corridor, landing, stairwell and outhouse. It is unlikely that there would have been much structural change to the building since the early 18th century as the Parry family were such intermittent occupiers; so, evidence of usage of the mansion over two centuries has been preserved.[39]

Llwyn Ynn particulars 1.jpg
Llwyn Ynn particulars 2.jpg

 Sales Particulars 1912 and 1937, FRO D/DM/325/1 and DRO DD/DM/1238/1


The Llwyn Ynn maintenance schedule has no equal in Dyffryn Clwyd for describing a country house interior; the only other description of a  house interior is from Plas Llangwyfan. In the mid Victorian period. Moses and Jane Roberts were the tenants of the former mansion and lived there with their daughters. A frequent visitor in the 1860s was their grandson, Herbert Lewis, then a small boy. Herbert became all the things which most of the landlords of Dyffryn Clwyd failed to achieve: first chair of Flintshire County Council, a member of parliament, a government minister, a Privy Counsellor and a Knight Grand Cross of the British Empire.[40] As the house was pulled down, he decided to jot down his childhood memories of Plas Llangwyfan.

plas llangwyfan.jpg

‘Plas was situated on the Southeast slope of the Clwydian range and commanded a view of the Vale of Clwyd; it had a southerly aspect. A stone tablet on the front bore a date of 1584.

The house consisted of a central portion with two wings.

Looking at the house from the garden, the left wing formed a dining room (on the) ground floor and a drawing (room) on the 1st floor [which has been converted into a large stable and loft]

The ground floor central portion is a long kitchen and a small parlour seldom used and between the kitchen and stable door is a heavy studded door. At the back of the kitchen right wing is a good-sized back kitchen and dairy: in front a parlour with an oak wainscot.

The first floor of the central portion of the house right wing (has) several bedrooms and a large lumber room with a door, which leads to the garden and another door to the kitchen and dairy.

Now for some contents …kitchen …. is lighted by one large window with leaded panes beneath which is a long and massive table at which workmen take their meals. On the east side of middle kitchen is a round table at which family takes theirs. It stands in front of a large, tall dresser with shiny rows of plates and a grandfather clock always an hour (fast).

By the fireplace is a settle and a pantry; over it a rack bearing a gun a brass warming pan and other things. There is also a door leading to a pantry. Another between fire and back kitchen door.

Another door next to the main entrance opens onto a long passage to a wainscoted parlour which was adorned with old pictures of the evangelists: an aroma of centuries seems to hang around this room.

Before the central part of the house is a small garden with a flower bed in the centre in which I once…. dug a hole with a view to getting through earth to New Zealand which I understood was on the opposite side of the world.

Before the house beyond little garden was a very extensive farmyard with a cattle shippon in a separate building on the left (its) centre bay filled with a granary and a cart shed below by the side of a long and huge barn. At right end of yard as we look from the gate of the little garden are another stable above which are labourers’ quarters and cow shippon alongside of which a gate leads to a lane going down to Rhiwbebyll on left and to Llangwyfan church on right.

At back of the house is a large kitchen and flower garden and behind that an orchard which extends to the churchyard in which Moses and Jane Roberts are buried. To the west of back kitchen and dairy lies an upper portion of yard with a pistyll and stream running into a pond which I sometimes navigated in a salting tub with an inherent fondness for boats and water that has never left me.

Between the pond and the back kitchen was a walled enclosure for coal which was fetched from Mold once a year; farm waggons started 3 am and returning from their long and slow journey at nightfall.

Pigs, fowls, ducks and geese swarmed in large numbers about the upper and lower yards and I chased with them vigorously with a bow and arrow which did them no harm.’


A D M Barrell and M H Brown, The English of Dyffryn Clwyd 1294-1399 WHR Vol 17 nos 1-4 1994-5;

Robin Gwyndaf,  Some references in Welsh Poetry to Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century New and Rebuilt Houses in North Wales TDHS VOL 22, 1973; 

E D Evans, The crown lordships of Denbighshire Part 1 TDHS Vol 50 for 2001;

Llinos Beverley Smith, Family, land and inheritance in late medieval Wales: a case study of Llannerch in the lordship of Dyffryn Clwyd Aberystwyth;

Robin Gwyndaf, Sir Richard Clough of Denbigh by TDHS 22 1973, 55

John Davies, History of Wales;

Peter Smith Rural Housing in Wales: The Agrarian History of England and Wales Vol 1v 1500-1649 ed Joan Thirsk (Cambridge 1967) pp 767-813;

History of Powis Fadog;

Numerous articles in RHUTHUN LOCAL HISTORY BROADSHEET (RLHB) especially by D W Williams;

Dictionary of Welsh Biography;

NLW Introduction to estate catalogues;

NLW. DRO and FRO estate papers;

T. Nicholas, Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales: vol. 1 (London, 1872), p. 373.


[1] Field name matches are maes y chwarel, kae eithin, maes tan yr eithin, kae yr hen vonwent and tyddyn godyn with names in DRO:DD/DM/302/21 and DD/PC/27

[2] G J Williams, Traddodiad Llenyddol Dyffryn Clwyd a’r Cyffiniau TDHS VOL 1, 21 Saunders Lewis described this period as Y Ganrif Fawr when Dyffryn Clwyd and Northern Powys was the centre of Welsh literary life; 26-7 with Jasper Gryffyth, warden of Ruthin, David Johns, vicar of Llanfair DC and a host of others, Rhisiart ap Sion o Yscorlegan yn Llangynhafal, Roger Morris o Goed y Talwrn Llanfair D C, Tomas Wyn o Euarth. There is no cluster like this in any other region of Wales and they contributed the most to safeguard the literature of Wales.

[3] DRO/ DD/RC/519 Inquisition by Commission of Court of Exchequer into crown lands in the Commote of Dogfeiling. Date: 20 Feb 1606. This is a wonderful source of information about the families and properties and local names in 1606 in the comment of Dogfeiling,

[4] DRO PD 67/1/17 Land Tax list 1729 Parish assessed at £530. Land tax 2s/£1 Dr Edward Wynn of Plas Pella. RHUTHUN LOCAL HISTORY BROADSHEET Issue No 47 September 1996 has been helpful in revealing the house’s history

[5] FRO: D/M/2123 3/4 Aug 1826 Thomas Lee of Birmingham, co. Warwick, esq., and Lydia, his wife …..
(ii) The Rev. John Welchman Wynne of Plaxtoll, near Wrotham, co. Kent, clerk, great nephew and heir of Elizabeth Wynne, formerly of Copperleney, co. Flint, spinster, deceased.
(xvii) Sir Thomas Swymmer Champneys of Orchardleigh, co. Somerset, Baronet.
(Conveyance to (xvii) of the Gop estate in the parishes of Newmarket [Trelawnyd], Gwaenysgor, Dyserth, Whitford, Cwm, Llanasa, Meliden, Rhuddlan, Tremeirchion, co. Flint (schedule annexed) to uses (specified)..

FRO:D/M/2107 8/9 Jun 1757 (i) Jacob Coates of Newmarket, co. Flint, gent., and Jane, his wife.
(ii) Thomas Welchman, alias Thomas Welchman Wynne of Newmarket, gent., whose mother Hester was sister of John Wynne the younger, deceased, and Elizabeth Wynne of Newmarket, spinster.
Third part of all the capital and other messuages held by John Wynne, deceased,
Consideration: £177.7s.6d. and security for £2,322.12s.6d.

[6] FRO:D/JL/450 05-06 Oct 1744 (i) John Wynne the elder of Copperleney, co. Flint, esq., etc (iii) Rev. Thomas Ince of Chester, clerk, and Susan his wife, an executrix of will of the said Jonathan Robinson.
(iv) Edward Hughes of Keidiog [Ceidiog], co. Denbigh, gent., and John Hughes, his son.
(v) Hugh Lloyd of Berth, co. Denbigh, gent.
Lease and release of capital messuage called Plas Draw, messuages called Tyddyn y Fron, Tyddyn Gwayn Ucha, and Tyddyn Harry Griffith otherwise Clist y Gath in Llangynhafal, messuages called Tyddyn Godyn, Tyddyn Gwayn Isa and Tyddyn Rhose otherwise Tyddyn William Lloyd in Llan y chan, Rhiewbebill tenement in Llandurnog [Llandyrnog], parcels of land (named) to the said messuages belonging, and chief rent of 13s yearly issuing from messuage called Gales in Llangwyfan, co. Denbigh to (v) upon trusts (specified).
Consideration: £183.4s.

[7] Parish Register Baptisms 1 Jan 1735 Elizabeth daughter of John and Elizabeth; 13 April 1747 Judith daughter of John and Elizabeth Hughes the daughter of John and Elizabeth Hughes of Plas Draw. Parish Register Burials June 13th 1774 ------- Hughes  (Mrs) Plas Draw; 19th Feb 1778 John Hughes esq Plas Draw 30th September 1806 Judith Davies of Plas Draw

[8] DRO: QSD/DK/1/100 Land Tax 1797, 1829 1797 Largest proprietors Mrs Dorothy Wynne 10 properties, Thomas Davies 8 properties, J Edward Maddocks 4 properties, Lord William Beauclerk 7 properties; 1829 John Ll Wynne 9 properties, Thomas avies 7 properties occupying Plas draw hall, Charles Potts 6 properties.

[9] DRO: DD/RC/519 6

[10] PRO E.179.220/166 Subsidy Roll 35 HVIII

[11] Sources: Hearth Tax and DRO MFD 1709 of PRO. E. 179. 221/299b; Hearth Tax 1666 DRO MFD 1709 of E179/221/299/3. Transcripts by Leonard Owen can be found at UCNW Archives.

[12] History of Powis Fadog, ‘Llwyn Ynn in the Township of Eyarth and Caer Ddinog in Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd’. John ab Rhys of Caerddinog’s ancestry has been traced to the 11th century and he married the daughter of the Baron Lewys ab Owain of Cwrt Plas yn Dre, Dolgellau who was murdered in 1555.

[13] PRO E.179.220/166 Subsidy Roll 35 HVIII (1544).  Gruff ap Ieuan ap David has an estate worth terr and tent £10 and in bon and catt £20 and paying 13/4 in tax There is also John ap Gruff ap Ieuan Wyn 40s 6d. but Gruff ap Ieuan ap David matches the entry in the Elizabethan subsidy better and his entry also reveals the existence of a large estate.

[14] PRO E.179.220/185 Subsidy Roll 39 Elizabeth I (1597), P137 Llanlidan John Wyn ap Res 36s;    Llanvair Edro Price et Edro ap John Gruff ap Ieuan 3os 6s

[15] PRO E.179. 220/193 18 James 1 (1621).

[16] CSH 691. 1. Thomas Wynne ap John ap Harry of Ruthin, co. Denbigh, gent.,. 2. John Mosten of Corrorion, co. Caernarvon, gent. Lease for 12 years of goods, chattels, jewel, plate, gold, money, household styuff, implements, etc., which the said Thomas of late had of the gift of the said John 1582/3, Feb. 20.

[17] CSH 308. Award of Edward Theloall and John Edward Lloyd, gentlemen, in a dispute between Thomas Wynn ap John ap Harrye of Ruthin, co. Denbigh, gent., and John ap Richard, clerk, vicar of Llanynis, touching the tithes of corn and hay of the township of Brynkredig, parish of Llanynis, diocese of Bangor 1581, Aug. 9.

[18] CSH 786. 1. Edward Price of Lloyn Inn, gent., Thomas Lloid of Plas Ennion, gent,. Thomas Johnes of Llanelidan, gent., and Thomas Hughes of the same, gent., and Gwenn Salesbury, his wife, all of co. Denbigh;. 2. Symon Parrie of Ruthine, esq., and John Parry of Llanbeder, gent. Grant of Plas yn Pont y go in Nantcloyd and parcels of land called kae r deintir, y ddwy ddol, kae r skybor, y ddwy Erow tan y Clommendy, Kae r Pysgodlyn, Kae r dderwen, keven llin, r Erow garregog, y fron wenn, y fronn goch, Tir yngharad, and Tythyn Thomas ap Gruffith ap Ieuan, in Nantcloyd and Caervillo 1619/20, Jan. 11

[19] CSH 462. 1. Symon Parry of Ruthin, co. Denbigh, esq.;. 2. John Thelwall of Llanhychan and John Parry of Llanbeder, gentlemen. Grant to uses (postnuptial settlement of Symon Parry and Jane, his wife, daughter of John Thelwall of Llanruth, esq.) of Y Plas yn Pont y go, messuages and lands, a water corn mill called Melyn geeler, parcels of land called y ddol vawr vcha, y ddole vawr issa, dol fawr fehan, y fach flethyn, Tir y kellwyn, y fyches, y kefny gwernog, y ddol ddv, gwern r olchfa, y kaye Rhedynog, y kae hir, tythyn John ap John thomas, Gwern y poid, y Bryn Melyn, Nancloyd Vcha, and koed Nantcloyd, all in Nantcloyd, and tithes in the parishes of Bryneglwys and Llandesillio in Yale.  1619/20, March 10.

[20] CSH 238. (post-nuptial settlement of the said William Parry and Martha, his wife, sister of the said Daniel Thelwall) of Nantclwyd otherwise y plas ym-hont y go in Nantclwyd 1629, Sept. 28. n

[21] CSH 729 1710, Aug. 2.

[22] British Listed Buildings

[23] RBS 60 December 1999 GLAN-Y WERN by D W Williams.

[24] Llanbedr Hall from WHGT 2001

[25] DRO:DD/DM/1799/58 Notes Hugh Morriston Davies and TB (includes published biography). In1918, Morriston Davies leased the hall as a sanatorium and later purchased it and expanded the facilities.

[26] The North Wales Chronicle and Advertiser for the… 17th March 1846

A new and handsome edifice, consisting of a school-room, capable of accommodating 70 children, and master's dwelling, is on the point of being completed in the parish of Llanelidan, near Ruthin. It is erected on a piece of land granted for that purpose by Cristopher Bullen, Esq., the eminent banker, of Liverpool, and the present owner of the Nant Clwyd Estate in the above parish who, besides, transmitted, tlnough his agent, the munificent contribution of £20. to the Rev, David Roberts, the curate of the parish, who has the management of the undertaking.

[27] Hearths c 1666 Eyarth township. William Parry esqr 2 Lady Margratt 6 ditto in another house ditto in 3 outhouses 3, Mr Ellis Lloyd 6 ditto 2 more disputable 2 William Lloyd 5 ditto a bakehouse. 1666 ADDITIONAL Mr Edmond Price 5, Magdalen Price Wid, and a bakehouse1, William Parry esq 7

[28] (Barclay Archive: Goslings Acc130/46 f 411-2)

[29] Bibliographic notes courtesy of Margaret Dunn The tablet in Llanfair church reads: Sacred / to the memory of Richard Parry Esq./ of Llwyn ynn in this parish/ who departed this life on 12 April 1834 aged 59.

[30] AG ZDBE/3423 1. The Rev. Henry William Haygarth of Wimbledon, co. Surrey, Clerk in Holy Orders. 2. John Ernest Greaves of Broneifion, co. Carnarvon [Caernarfon], Esq., etc. LEASE (copy draft) of 8/36ths undivided shares in the Llechwyd-y-Cyd [Llechwedd-y-Cyd] Slate Quarries, Festiniog [Ffestiniog]. TERM: 58 years.

[31] FRO D/DM/325/1 Llwyn Ynn estate particulars. Splendid Domestic Water from Mountain springs is laid on to most lots.

[32] DD/DM/1238: Miscellaneous documents relating to Llanfair Dyffr... (1937-1963) DD/DM/1238/1: Catalogue of sale of antiques, furniture, painting... (22 Jun 1937-24 Jun 1937)

[33] The house last appears on the 1963 edition of the Ordnance Survey map and A.J. Parkinson of the RCAHMW found it destroyed when he visited in 1964. However, the service range was retained as a dwelling and survives, albeit in a parlous state.

[34] Mark Baker, The Development of the Welsh Country House: ‘dy lŷs enaid y wlad/your court, the soul of the land’ PhD Archaeology 2015. Much of this section is the result of M Baker’s work.

[35] T. Nicholas, Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales: vol. 1 (London, 1872), p. 373.

[36] Mark Baker, The Development of the Welsh Country House: ‘dy lŷs enaid y wlad/your court, the soul of the land’ PhD Archaeology 2015. Much of this section is the result of M Baker’s work.

[37] NTD /1780 Copy sales particulars

[38] FRO: DD/PO/471 Surveying office file 1914-1915 Dilapidations regarding Llwyn Ynn, Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd, W.E. Rowlands v. Preston

[39] DRO: DD/ PO/471 The dilapidations survey included -,

Ground floor, Hall, morning room, stairs.

Back part (Main) Kitchen, butler’s pantry, londa off kitchen, lean to down three steps

down 11 steps

two room boarded floor etc

First floor, drawing room, boudoir, staircase

approached by backstairs, one front bedroom, small store, one back bedroom, bathroom

Up the stairs from by back porch to 3 bedrooms for men over servant's hall and adjoining place

approached also by steps from by housekeeper’s room.

[40] FRO: D/L/959  Late 19th Century (c.1916) Description: By John Herbert Lewis of Plas Llangwyfan [home of his mother Catherine Lewis]. Lewis has left some scrappy, hastily jotted notes, which I have tidied up and interpreted.



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